Fall Birding Almanac

Fall MigrationFall brings change not only to the landscape, but to the species and behavior of birds in your yard. With winter coming, now is the time to do what you can to help your feathered friends through the hardships of winter.

Fall Cardinal

Songbirds begin migrating as early as August. By October, winter species are arriving while your summer friends have flown south. During fall migration, non-resident species may stop at your bird feeders to fuel up, to rest in your yard, or take shelter from a storm.

Insect-eating birds such as swifts, flycatchers, warblers and swallows will be the first to migrate south.

Suet FeederFeeding Birds in the Fall

As the weather turns colder, expect heavier traffic at your bird feeders. Prepare for this by cleaning your feeders and stocking up on bird seed and suet. Repair any feeding stations that show signs of wear or damage.

The weather offers vital clues to migration patterns. Many species fly ahead of cold fronts as the tailwind makes flying faster and easier.  If your forecast warns of an advancing cold front, expect new species and a greater number of birds at your feeder.

  • Place several suet feeders in your yard. A single woodpecker can monopolize one suet feeder all day. The more suet feeders you put out, the greater number of birds will have the opportunity to fill up on this vital fall and winter fuel.
  • Put out at least one very low tray feeder that is one foot or less above the ground. This will attract ground feeders such as juncos and mourning doves.
  • Keep your hummingbird and nectar feeders out as long as possible, bringing them in only when freezing temperatures are imminent. You could save the life of a late migrant!
  • Fresh water is as important in winter as it is in the heat of summer. Provider water in a heated bird bath year-round.


Attracting Birds to Your Backyard: Roth, Sally; Rodale



Cold Frames

Cold Frame 3A cold frame will give you greater control over the weather by creating nearly ideal conditions where and when your plants need them most. A cold frame will extend your growing season, and allow you to grow plants suited to a warmer climate. You can think of a cold frame as a passive solar collector that captures the warmth and light of the sun.

Cold frames are most commonly used in spring for starting seedlings, but they can be used for much more. Fall crops will benefit from a moist, shaded cold frame during the heat of summer. The same cold frame can be used for forcing spring bulbs during the winter.

Cold Frames Defined

A cold frame is a rectangular structure with a glass top. Most face south and have a slanting roof that enables snow and water to slide off rather than accumulate. The angle of the slope ranges from 35 to 55 degrees, as this range captures the most sunlight during summer and fall conditions. A white interior is used to reflect sunlight onto the plants, and blocks or poles are used to prop the box open for air circulation.

Choosing the Best Location for Your Cold FrameSun Exposure

Choose a site for your cold frame that will maximize exposure to the sun. It should face south, but southeast or southwest are the best alternatives if a site with a true south exposure is unavailable. Choose a site that receives full sun from mid-morning to mid-afternoon during the winter and spring. Prepare the site to be as level as possible and so that it drains well. Protect your cold frame during the winter by siting it with a fence, hedge, or building on its north side.

Choose Between Permanent and Portable Cold Frames

A permanent cold frame is dug into the ground or built on the surface. A cold frame above ground provides less protection from frost than one that has been dug into the ground, but both offer better protection from frost than a portable frame, and will last longer, as they are sturdier.

A portable cold frame is essentially a box without a bottom, with a clear cover. They are less sturdily-built than permanent cold frames and are therefore less insulated, resulting in a wider fluctuation in temperatures. There are many types of portable cold frames that are available commercially, and many of them are collapsible for storage.

Choosing Between a Cold Frame and a Hot Bed

The only difference between a cold frame and a hot bed is that the hot bed contains an artificial source of heat, such as hot compost or a heating coil. This reliable source of heat allows you to use them earlier in the season and they maintain ideal conditions for starting the widest variety of seeds.

Create your own hot bed by digging a pit at least one foot deep, to hold the heating cable. Spread a layer of gravel at the base of your pit, and then a two inch layer of vermiculite. Lay the cable in long loops on top of the vermiculite. Don’t cross the cable, and keep the loops at least 8 inches apart and 3 inches from the edge of the frame. Spread a one inch layer of sand over the cable, and then a layer of screen or hardware cloth to protect it from digging tools. Lay 4 to 6 inches of coarse sand over the wire, and place your cold frame above this.

ThermometerTemperature Control

Bright sun on a closed, insulated and unventilated cold frame can generate temperatures over 100 degrees. Place a thermometer in a shady spot within the cold frame to help you determine when to ventilate it.






With a newly-established cold frame, be sure to check soil conditions frequently so that you do not under- or over-water your plants, especially in warm weather. The majority of plants require soil to be moist but not soggy. Check your soil at a depth of 1 to 1 ½ inches. Avoid watering on cold and cloudy days, and water early in the day to discourage fungal growth. Cold water will shock plants and slow growth, so use water that is roughly the same temperature as the soil inside the cold frame.

Pests and Disease

Insects, pests and mold will thrive just as well as your plants in your cold frame or hot bed, during mild weather. Check regularly for signs of disease and pests. Proper ventilation and generous spacing of plants can lessen the occurrence of disease. If problems persist, remove your plants and sterilize your cold frame.  Pour boiling water on the gravel or soil at the base of your cold frame, or leave the lid shut to allow heat to build during the summer.

Spring Uses for a Cold Frame

Harden seedlings already started indoors by moving them into your cold frame one or two weeks before transplanting them. Shade them at first and protect them from burning with burlap or by painting the glass lid with a mixture of clay soil and water. Acclimate them by opening the vent for a longer period each day.

Germinate the seeds of cold-tolerant vegetables, perennials and annuals in your cold frame. Sow the seeds in pots or directly in the soil of your cold frame 2 months before the last spring frost date, or even earlier in a hot bed.

Summer Uses for a Cold Frame

Remove the glass top of your cold frame and replace it with screen. Use wood lath to shade fall crops of heat-sensitive vegetables such as lettuce. Use the cold frame for rooting cuttings.

Fall and Winter Uses for a Cold Frame

Cold treat seeds by planting them in your cold frame for spring germination. Sow the seeds just before the ground freezes. Use your cold frame for fall crops of lettuce and spinach. Store herbs, perennials and container plants in your cold frame for protection over the winter. Force spring bulbs in your cold frame.



All-New Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening: The Indispensable Resource for Every Gardner, Fern Marshall Bradley and Barbara W Ellis, Editors


Extending Your Growing Season

Cold FramesIf the end of summer leaves you wanting more, extend your growing season with these simple tips.

Extend your growing season with structures that you can buy or make yourself and techniques that keep the air and soil around your plants warmer as the growing season ends or before it begins next spring. Keep reading to learn how to enjoy your garden longer!

Cold FramesCold Frames 2

Cold frames are the most popular method of extending your growing season. They are usually a simple structure of wood and transparent glass or plastic that relies on the sun to warm the air and soil that they protect. They trap the sun’s warmth to keeps plants and seedlings warm during the colder temperatures at night.

Hot beds are cold frames that incorporate an auxiliary source of heat such as composting manure or a heating cable.

In our next post, we will go into greater detail on the nearly-ideal conditions created by cold frames, how to manage them, potential pest and disease concerns, and how to use them year-round.

Follow these links for a variety of plans and instructions on building your own cold frames:




A cloche is a small covering for plants that traps the warmth of the sun to raise the air temperature. These are best used for protection against frost. You can buy cloches, or make your own. The types commercially available are treated-paper hotcaps and Wallo ‘Water, for individual plants.

For a very inexpensive home-made alternative, cut three sides of the bottom of a plastic gallon milk jug, leaving the fourth side as a flap. Place the jug, uncapped, over an individual plant, and use the flap made the jug’s bottom as a platform on which to place a stone or brick to weight the structure in place. The opening at the top of the jug will allow for air circulation while the jug retains enough heat to protect the plant its shielding from frost.

You can also use a 4-foot piece of translucent corrugated fiberglass to protect a row of plants. Bend the fiberglass into the form of a tunnel and stake it in place.

Follow this link for directions on making your own hotcaps:


Row CoversFloating Row Covers

You can use row covers to protect rows, particular areas of your garden, or your entire garden. They generally consist of sheets of fabric or transparent plastic. Using row covers can add a month or more to your growing season for most gardens.

Plastic row covers generate warmer temperatures than cloth, so much so that you will need to provide adequate air circulation on warm days so that you don’t ‘cook’ your plants.

Suspend row covers with metal wire or hoops of wood or plastic to protect plants and allow some air circulation. Anchor them securely with soil, boards, pipes, stones or bricks.

Floating row covers of lightweight fabric can be laid directly on the plants but provide minimal protection against frost. Cover loosely, and allow enough slack for 4-6 weeks of growth.

Send us pictures and share your stories on extending your growing season!


All-New Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening: The Indispensable Resource for Every Gardner, Fern Marshall Bradley and Barbara W Ellis, Editors




PruningPruning serves multiple purposes:

  • Shows plants, shrubs and trees at their best
  • Pruned plants produce more and better fruit and flowers
  • Improves the health of diseased plants
  • Strengthens trees stronger and makes them safer
  • Channels growth away from structures and traffic

See the Pruning Glossary section at the end of this post for terms and their definitions.

When to Prune

Heavy pruning should be done in spring, as it stimulates rapid regrowth. Prune evergreens in the spring and deciduous trees and shrubs in late winter to stimulate new growth in the spring. Prune shrubs that bloom in the spring after they have blossomed so that there is still time for growth and to set new buds before winter.

Summer pruning does little to stimulate growth. Hot, dry conditions stress plants, so avoid heavy pruning. Limit summer pruning to removing suckers, and to thin summer-flowering shrubs after they have bloomed.

Mid to late fall is the time for only thinning cuts. Heading cuts will stimulate soft new growth easily damaged by frost. Do not prune a plant while it is dropping leaves.

By late winter, leaves have dropped and you can easily see the form of the plant and therefore how to improve it. Pruning in winter stimulates growth in the spring.Formal Hedge

Pruning Do’s and Don’ts

Remove all dead wood first, to improve health and appearance, then prune from the bottom of the plant up. With larger plants, prune from the inside out. Next, look for branches that cross and rub. Keep the branch that is healthiest and better situated, that either grows upward or fills in empty space, and prune the other branch.

For shrubs, prune with the objective of opening up the
center of the shrub, and cleaning up the base of the shrub. This will allow more light to penetrate and more air to circulate, improving the health of the shrub.

Prune back branches that reach the ground, crowd other plants, or are too close to structures and walkways.

The most common pruning mistakes are:

  • pruning in an attempt to make plants smaller again
  • tree topping
  • indiscriminate shearing
  • overthinning

The only cure for bad pruning is time. Most plants will return to their natural state within a few years.

Pruning Cuts

Most pruning consists of one or two cuts: thinning cuts, or heading cuts.

Heading CutA thinning cut removes the entire branch.  Use a thinning cut to open up a plant to allow more sunlight to penetrate into its interior, to redirect growth, or to establish good structure.

A heading cut removes only part of a branch that results in rapid, bushy growth just below the cut. Use a heading cut to shorten a plant and stimulate latent buds. This is the nonselective technique used to shape formal hedges and topiary.Topiary

Pruning Tools

Keep your pruning tools sharp, as the best tools to use for pruning are those that will cut cleanly and easily. Use pruning shears for stems and twigs, lopping shears for branches that are the diameter of your finger or larger, and a pruning saw for branches larger than that.

Share your Secrets, Successes and Stories with us!

Comment below to share your tips for pruning, share your stories with our community of gardening enthusiasts, or get your questions answered by the garden experts at HostasDirect!


Branch collar: The part of the trunk that holds the branch to the trunk and revealed as the bulge at the base of the branch.

Branch crotch: The angle where a tree branch meets the trunk or parent stem.

Bread bud: When a latent bud is stimulated into growing into a leaf or twig.

Cane: A long, slender branch that usually originates directly from the roots.

Leader: The main or tallest shoot of a tree trunk.

Pinching: Nipping the end bud of a twig or stem with your fingertips to discourage further growth in that direction.

Thinning cut: Cutting a limb off at the base, either at ground level or at a branch collar.

Heading cut: Cutting a branch back to a side bud or shoot.

Skirting or limbing up: Pruning off the lower limbs of a tree.

Sucker: An upright shoot growing from the root or graft union; also a straight, rapidly growing shoot that grows in response to an injury or poor pruning.

Topiary: Plants sculpted into tightly sheared geometric shapes or likenesses of animals, people or objects.



All-New Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening: The Indispensable Resource for Every Gardner, Fern Marshall Bradley and Barbara W Ellis, Editors


Dividing Your Plants for Propagation

Divide bulbsDivision is a simple and quick method of propagating plants with multiple stems. It involves separating a multi-stemmed plant into several smaller plants.




Plants that can be divided:

  • Groundcovers
  • Clump-forming perennials
  • Bulbs
  • Tubers
  • Ornamental grasses
  • Suckering shrubs
  • Houseplants
  • Herbs

When to Divide

Divide your plants when they are dormant. For plants that bloom in spring and summer, divide in the fall, and for plants that bloom in the fall, divide in the spring. For houseplants, divide in the spring once new growth has begun. For tubers such as dahlias and begonias, divide them before you plant them in the spring.

How to Divide

Only divide healthy plants. Water the soil thoroughly the day before you plan to divide. Divide in the evening, or during cool, cloudy weather, to reduce moisture loss. Lift the plant to be divided from the soil with a pitchfork or spade. Separate healthy new growth and discard woody old growth. Each piece divided from the whole needs to have its own root system to continue growing.Plant Division

For herbaceous plants such as perennials or ornamental grasses, use a sharp spade to divide the plant into smaller sections in a single, clean cut. Do not chop at the roots. For fleshy crowns such as astilbes and hostas, divide sections with their own roots with a sharp knife. Lift bulbs only after their foliage has yellowed and died. Separate new bulbs from the old bulbs, and replant them at the correct depth and spacing. Cut dahlia crowns and iris rhizomes apart with a sharp knife into divisions that have their own bud where the root joins the crown. Cut tubers such as begonia and caladium into two or three sections that have a sprout or visible bud. Expose these cut surfaces to air for a day or two to dry before planting.

Care after Division

Replant your new divisions as quickly as possible, to prevent drying, at the same depth as the original plant. Water thoroughly. When dividing in the fall, apply mulch to protect developing roots from frost heaving.


All-New Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening: The Indispensable Resource for Every Gardner, Fern Marshall Bradley and Barbara W Ellis, Editors